Are holist underdetermination and contrastive underdetermination mutually exclusive in any ways?

What is the conclusion of the underdetermination argument?

Underdetermination says that all evidence necessarily underdetermines any scientific theory. Underdetermination exists when available evidence is insufficient to identify which belief one should hold about that evidence.

What is the duhem problem and what does it mean for our understanding of science?

The Duhem–Quine thesis, also called the Duhem–Quine problem, after Pierre Duhem and Willard Van Orman Quine, is that in science it is impossible to experimentally test a scientific hypothesis in isolation, because an empirical test of the hypothesis requires one or more background assumptions (also called auxiliary …

What is the underdetermination of theory by evidence?

Underdetermination is a thesis explaining that for any scientifically based theory there will always be at least one rival theory that is also supported by the evidence given, and that that theory can also be logically maintained in the face of any new evidence.

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Why is underdetermination important?

The epistemological significance of underdetermination, more specifically of its strong, global variant, is that it undermines the doctrine of scientific realism. We examine this epistemological significance as has been addressed by the three thinkers.

What is contrastive underdetermination?

Contrastive underdetermination is so-called because it questions the ability of the evidence to confirm any given hypothesis against alternatives, and the central focus of discussion in this connection (equally often regarded as “the” problem of underdetermination) concerns the character of the supposed alternatives.

Why does Kuhn’s description of change within normal science not fit with standard empiricist attitudes towards scientific change?

Why does Kuhns description of change within “normal” science not fit with the standard empiricists attitudes towards scientific change? Kuhn believes that during normal sceince, sceimtist do not challenge the central principle. He thinks that this is a better discription of science.

Why does duhem say that crucial experiments are impossible in physics?

Duhem argues that crucial experiments resemble false dilemmas: hypotheses in physics do not come in pairs, so that crucial experiments cannot transform one of the two into a demonstrated truth.

What are the Two Dogmas of Empiricism According to Quine?

Introduction The two dogmas are (1) the analytic/synthetic distinction (2) reductionism (to sense data). Quine claims that both are ill-founded. 1. Background for Analyticity Mainly leading to the reduction of analyticity to synonymy.

What does it mean to say that observations are theory laden?

Theory-ladenness of observation holds that everything one observes is interpreted through a prior understanding of other theories and concepts. Whenever we describe observations, we are constantly utilizing terms and measurements that our society has adopted.

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What do logical positivists believe?

logical positivism, also called logical empiricism, a philosophical movement that arose in Vienna in the 1920s and was characterized by the view that scientific knowledge is the only kind of factual knowledge and that all traditional metaphysical doctrines are to be rejected as meaningless.

What is inferential justification?

Principle of Inferential Justification (PIJ): To be justified in believing P on the basis of E one must be (1) justified in believing E, and (2) justified in believing that E makes probable P.

What does Underdetermine mean?

verb. [with object] Account for (a theory or phenomenon) with less than the amount of evidence needed for proof or certainty. ‘most cosmological theories are underdetermined by the facts’

Can an underdetermined system be inconsistent?

Underdetermined polynomial systems

A system of polynomial equations which has fewer equations than unknowns is said to be underdetermined. It has either infinitely many complex solutions (or, more generally, solutions in an algebraically closed field) or is inconsistent.

What is the meaning of overdetermined?

excessively determined

Definition of overdetermined
1 : excessively determined. 2 : having more than one determining psychological factor.

What is a synonym for undetermined?

synonyms: open, undecided, unresolved unsettled. still in doubt.

Is there a difference between indeterminate and undetermined?

As adjectives the difference between indeterminate and undetermined. is that indeterminate is not accurately determined or determinable while undetermined is not determined; not settled; not decided.

What is the opposite of undetermined?

Opposite of not clearly understood or visually perceived. clear. definite. pellucid. settled.