Aristotle on unconditional vs universal goods


What is the ultimate good according to Aristotle?

Aristotle first recognizes that happiness is the ultimate good, since all other goods are intermediate while happiness is final. We pursue other goods to achieve happiness, but happiness is valuable in itself.

What are the three types of goods Aristotle?

In his Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle provides a rather complex understanding of what is good for human beings. He claims that there are three kinds of goods: the goods of the soul, i.e. mainly the virtues; the goods of the body, e.g. good health; the external goods.

What does Aristotle mean by goods?

Aristotle’s view is that (a) certain goods (e.g., life and health) are necessary preconditions for happiness and that (b) others (wealth, friends, fame, honor) are embellishments that promote or fill out a good life for a virtuous person, but that (c) it is the possession and exercise of virtue which is the core …

Why does Aristotle think we need external goods?

1 Introduction. In Nicomachean Ethics 1.8, Aristotle seems to argue that certain external goods are needed for happiness because, in the first place, they are needed for virtuous activity.

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How does Aristotle define external goods?

Jay Elliott. In Book I of the Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle makes two central claims about the substantive content ofeudaimonia or “happiness”: (1) that happiness is “activity of the soul in accord with virtue”[1]; and (2) that happiness “needs external goods,” such as friends, wealth, and political power.

What are the two kinds of virtues Aristotle explores?

There are two kinds of virtue: intellectual and moral. We learn intellectual virtues by instruction, and we learn moral virtues by habit and constant practice.

What are Aristotle’s intellectual virtues?

According to Aristotle, the intellectual virtues include: scientific knowledge (episteme), artistic or technical knowledge (techne), intuitive reason (nous), practical wisdom (phronesis), and philosophic wisdom (sophia). Scientific knowledge is a knowledge of what is necessary and universal.

Is phronesis an intellectual virtue?

Aristotle thought there were two kinds of virtues, the intellectual and the moral. Practical wisdom or phronesis was an intellectual virtue of perceiving and understanding in effective ways and acting benevolently and beneficently.

How does Aristotle distinguish between intellectual virtue and moral virtue?

Aristotle (1998, pp. 28-29 [1102a14-1103 b25]) suggests that moral and intellectual virtues are developed in different ways. Intellectual virtues are developed through teaching and instruction, while moral virtues are developed through a process of habituation.

Which of the following is a major difference between moral and intellectual virtues according to Aristotle?

Intellectual virtues are about learning to be the best you can be by understanding the world and achieving goals. Moral Virtues are about doing the greater good and being a better person by learning from mistakes and doing what feels right naturally.

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What does Aristotle say about the good life does it stand in the contemporary world?

According to Aristotle, the good life is the happy life, as he believes happiness is an end in itself. In the Nichomachean Ethics, Aristotle develops a theory of the good life, also known as eudaimonia, for humans. Eudaimonia is perhaps best translated as flourishing or living well and doing well.