The covering-law model of explanation is drawn from the natural sciences, and Hempel believed that if historical knowledge was cognitive knowledge at all it had to conform to the paradigm of explanation provided by those sciences.
What is Hempel’s covering-law model of explanation?
covering-law model, Model of explanation according to which to explain an event by reference to another event necessarily presupposes an appeal to laws or general propositions correlating events of the type to be explained (explananda) with events of the type cited as its causes or conditions (explanantia).
What are the two models of explanation?
Carl Gustav Hempel ‘s (1905-1997) classic account of explanation is widely known as the “covering-law model.” It includes two species: the Deductive-Nomological Explanation and the Probabilistic-Statistical Expla- nation.
What was the importance of the deductive-nomological model of explanation?
The standard conception of explanation used to be the deductive-nomological model of covering laws. According to that conception, a given phenomenon is explained by deducing its description from a law plus a description of the particular circumstances in which the phenomenon in question occurs.
What is a scientific explanation according to Hempel?
According to the Deductive-Nomological Model, a scientific explanation consists of two major “constituents”: an explanandum, which is a sentence “describing the phenomenon to be explained” and an explanans, “the class of those sentences which are adduced to account for the phenomenon” (Hempel & Oppenheim 1948 [1965: …
How was the theory explained?
In everyday use, the word “theory” often means an untested hunch, or a guess without supporting evidence. But for scientists, a theory has nearly the opposite meaning. A theory is a well-substantiated explanation of an aspect of the natural world that can incorporate laws, hypotheses and facts.
What is the historical explanation?
single type of explanation can be discovered : historical explanations. are always explanations of the past behaviour of human beings in terms. of motives, intentions, purposes, plans and so on; as opposed to. explanations in terms of generalisations about how certain individuals.
How does Hempel identifies and defines scientific explanation and its fundamental elements?
According to Hempel and Oppenheim, a fundamental theory is defined as a true statement whose quantifiers are not removable (that is, a fundamental theory is not equivalent to a statement without quantifiers), and which do not contain individual constants.
What role laws play in scientific explanation?
In general, a scientific law is the description of an observed phenomenon. It doesn’t explain why the phenomenon exists or what causes it. The explanation for a phenomenon is called a scientific theory. It is a misconception that theories turn into laws with enough research.
What are the problems with Hempel’s solution to the Raven paradox?
The lack of this solution is that it only confirms one of the paradox parties, namely: C. Hempel’s intuition that red apples do not increase confidence in the conclusion “All ravens are black”, and confirm only the conclusion “All non-black ones are non-ravens”. But then these statements are not equivalent.
What does Hempel’s paradox challenge?
The raven paradox, also known as Hempel’s paradox, Hempel’s ravens, or rarely the paradox of indoor ornithology, is a paradox arising from the question of what constitutes evidence for the truth of a statement.
What is nicod criterion?
A condition governing the confirmation of a general hypothesis by particular pieces of evidence, proposed by the French philosopher Jean Nicod (1893–1924) in his Foundations of Geometry and Induction (1930).
How many types of paradoxes are there?
There are four generally accepted types of paradox. The first is called a veridical paradox and describes a situation that is ultimately, logically true, but is either senseless or ridiculous.
What are the 3 types of paradoxes?
Three types of paradoxes
- Falsidical – Logic based on a falsehood.
- Veridical – Truthful.
- Antinomy – A contradiction, real or apparent, between two principles or conclusions, both of which seem equally justified.
What is paradox explain with examples?
A paradox is a statement that may seem contradictory but can be true (or at least make sense). This makes them stand out and play an important role in literature and everyday life. Beyond that, they can simply be entertaining brain teasers. Man standing in field using iPad as examples of paradox.