Counterfactual conditionals (also subjunctive or X-marked) are conditional sentences which discuss what would have been true under different circumstances, e.g. “If Peter believed in ghosts, he would be afraid to be here.” Counterfactuals are contrasted with indicatives, which are generally restricted to discussing …
What is a counterfactual example?
A counterfactual explanation describes a causal situation in the form: “If X had not occurred, Y would not have occurred”. For example: “If I hadn’t taken a sip of this hot coffee, I wouldn’t have burned my tongue”. Event Y is that I burned my tongue; cause X is that I had a hot coffee.
What is counterfactual method?
In its simplest form, counterfactual impact evaluation (CIE) is a method of comparison which involves comparing the outcomes of interest of those having benefitted from a policy or programme (the “treated group”) with those of a group similar in all respects to the treatment group (the “comparison/control group”), the …
What is a counterfactual in statistics?
Statistically created counterfactual: developing a statistical model, such as a regression analysis, to estimate what would have happened in the absence of an intervention.
What is a counterfactual argument example?
A counterfactual idea, assumption, or argument. noun. A counterfactual is defined as a statement that is not true. In the sentence “If dogs had no ears, they could not hear” the statement “if dogs had no ears” is an example of a counterfactual because dogs DO have ears..
Do counterfactuals have truth value?
Counterfactuals are not truth-functional.
What is the problem with counterfactuals?
The problem of counterfactuals
Since counterfactual conditionals are those whose antecedents are false, this analysis would wrongly predict that all counterfactuals are vacuously true.
Can you prove a counterfactual?
A counterfactual conditional cannot be evaluated as a truth-functional conditional, since a truth-functional conditional with false antecedent is ipso facto true.
What does Counterfact mean?
noun. Logic. a conditional statement the first clause of which expresses something contrary to fact, as “If I had known” Derived forms. counterfact.
Why do we use counterfactuals?
Counterfactuals serve a preparative function, and help people avoid past blunders. Counterfactual thinking also serves the affective function to make a person feel better. By comparing one’s present outcome to a less desirable outcome, the person may feel better about the current situation (1995).
What is a counterfactual econometrics?
The ‘counterfactual’ measures what would have happened to beneficiaries in the absence of the intervention, and impact is estimated by comparing counterfactual outcomes to those observed under the intervention.
How do you do counterfactual thinking?
Examples of upward counterfactual thinking are:
- “I wish I had taken that other job instead of this one 10 years ago – my life would be so much better if I had.”
- “I wish I would have gotten the part in that high school play, maybe I could have gotten into a theatre school and became an actor…”
What is antecedent strengthening?
“Strengthening the antecedent” refers to the inference φ → χ N (φ < ψ) → χ. It is valid for the material conditional, but invalid for counterfactuals. Suppose it is true that if I were to strike this match, it would light.
Is causation transitive?
1 INTRODUCTION It has seemed obvious to most philosophers that causation is a transitive relation. For example, if your existence is caused by that of your parents, and if their existence is caused by that of your grandparents, how could your grandparents’ existence fail to cause yours?
What is the counterfactual theory of causation?
The basic idea of counterfactual theories of causation is that the meaning of causal claims can be explained in terms of counterfactual conditionals of the form “If A had not occurred, C would not have occurred”.
What is another word for counterfactual?
In this page you can discover 14 synonyms, antonyms, idiomatic expressions, and related words for counterfactual, like: hypothetical, wrong, true, contrary to fact, counterfactuals, frequentist, a posteriori, causality, false, specious and spurious.
What is the synonym of bottomless?
unlimited, limitless, boundless, unbounded, inexhaustible, infinite, incalculable, inestimable, immeasurable, indeterminable, endless, never-ending, everlasting.
What is the opposite of counterfactual?
Opposite of acting or judging in error. correct. right. accurate. errorless.
Is not correct synonym?
1 erroneous, inexact; untrue. 2 unsuitable. 3 faulty.
How do you say incorrectly nicely?
10 expressions to Use In Speaking And Writing:
- I’m afarid that’s not quite right.
- Actually, I think you’ll find that…
- I’m afraid you’re mistaken.
- I don’t think you’re right about…
- Actually, I don’t think…
- No, you’ve got it wrong.
- No, that’s all wrong.
- Rubbish! / You’re talking rubbish.
What is a better word for evil?
OTHER WORDS FOR evil
1 sinful, iniquitous, depraved, vicious, corrupt, base, vile, nefarious. 2 pernicious, destructive. 6 wickedness, depravity, iniquity, unrighteousness, corruption, baseness. 9 disaster, calamity, woe, misery, suffering, sorrow.
What is a fallacious person?
adjective. intended to deceive. “fallacious testimony” synonyms: deceitful, fraudulent dishonest, dishonorable. deceptive or fraudulent; disposed to cheat or defraud or deceive.
Whats does thrived mean?
to grow vigorously : flourish
intransitive verb. 1 : to grow vigorously : flourish. 2 : to gain in wealth or possessions : prosper. 3 : to progress toward or realize a goal despite or because of circumstances —often used with on thrives on conflict.
Can a person be specious?
from The Century Dictionary.
Pleasing to the eye; externally fair or showy; appearing beautiful or charming; sightly; beautiful. Superficially fair, just, or correct; appearing well; apparently right; plausible; beguiling: as, specious reasoning; a specious argument; a specious person or book.