Cyclical Argument in Plato’s Phaedo

The Cyclical Argument, or Opposites Argument explains that Forms are eternal and unchanging, and as the soul always brings life, then it must not die, and is necessarily “imperishable”. As the body is mortal and is subject to physical death, the soul must be its indestructible opposite.

What does Plato argue in Phaedo?

The Phaedo gives us four different arguments for the immortality of the soul: The Argument from Opposites, the Theory of Recollection, the Argument from Affinity, and the final argument, given as a response to Cebes’ objection. Plato does not seem to place equal weight on all four of these arguments.

What is the main point of Phaedo?

The Phaedo is one of the most widely read dialogues written by the ancient Greek philosopher Plato. It claims to recount the events and conversations that occurred on the day that Plato’s teacher, Socrates (469-399 B.C.E.), was put to death by the state of Athens.

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How does Plato divide us in Phaedo?

In the Republic, for instance, Plato suggests that the soul is divided into three parts: reason, appetite, and spirit, or will. In this view, it would seem that the soul is divisible into three parts.)

What is the argument from opposites by Plato?

He states; “the beautiful is the opposite of the ugly and the just of the unjust and a thousand of those other things of a kind” (70e) Plato uses this argument of opposites in order to clarify that everything must have an opposite, therefore, there must surely be an opposite to the simple act of living which is death …

What is the cyclical argument?

The Cyclical Argument, or Opposites Argument explains that Forms are eternal and unchanging, and as the soul always brings life, then it must not die, and is necessarily “imperishable”. As the body is mortal and is subject to physical death, the soul must be its indestructible opposite.

Which argument is provided in the Phaedo in support of the Theory of recollection?

The Theory of Recollection shows that the soul existed before birth, and the Argument from Opposites shows that it must have been born from out of death. Bearing in mind that the soul has to be re-born after it dies, Simmias and Cebes are forced to acknowledge that it must continue to exist after death.

What is the thesis of Phaedo?

Phaedo Socrates, as represented in Plato’s Phaedo, comes to the conclusion that the soul is immortal based on the claim of recollection of forms. Socrates’ Theory of Forms states that the forms like equal itself, or equality, exist and we can know them.

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What is Plato’s underlying attitude towards the body in Phaedo?

Answer(s) Plato’s underlying attitude toward the body is that it is temporary, and something to be cast off. The body is not the person, it is a shell. The actual person is what resides inside the body until separated by death.

What is the main idea of the argument from the form of life?

One such argument is “the argument from the nature of the forms,” which states that because the forms are non-physical objects and cannot be grasped by something physical like the body, it follows that they must be grasped by the soul which must be non-physical as well.

What is the Meno paradox?

The argument known as “Meno’s Paradox” can be reformulated as follows: If you know what you’re looking for, inquiry is unnecessary. If you don’t know what you’re looking for, inquiry is impossible. Therefore, inquiry is either unnecessary or impossible.

How does Plato’s ontology differ from the ontology of Aristotle?

Although both Plato and Aristotle claim that there is an objective reality underpinning the physical world and that the world is knowable, Aristotle’s ontology offers a more pragmatic and plausible theory in that he grounds his epistemology, theory of knowledge, in the physical world.

What is the affinity argument?

In Plato’s Phaedo, Socrates offers an argument for the soul’s immortality, dubbed the ‘Affinity Argument’ (78c-80b). Socrates argues that since the soul shares its essential properties with the invisible and the divine, it necessarily shares the further property of immortality.

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What is Plato’s Theory of recollection?

In the Theory of Recollection, according to Plato, it is the remembrance of the ideas that each human being possesses in an innate way in the soul. Knowledge is not found in the external world, but is internally located, in the consciousness.

Do you find Plato’s arguments for the immortality of the soul convincing?

Plato believes that this knowledge is pre-natal, and so through dialogue argues that if man has a priori knowledge, the soul must exist before the body. This argument however does not prove that the soul exists immortally.

Are simmias and cebes convinced by Socrates arguments?

After reviewing Simmias’ and Cebes’ arguments, he asks if they reject all his previous arguments or only some of them. The two men agree that they only reject some of them, and, prompted by Socrates’ questioning, agree that they both still find the Theory of Recollection supremely convincing.

What is Socrates attitude toward death in the Phaedo?

Phaedo by Socrates

The conversation with Socrates turns to why a philosopher should not fear death. Socrates defines death as the separation of the soul from the body (64, c). He states that the body is a constant impediment to a philosopher in their search for the truth.

How do we get knowledge according to Socrates in the Phaedo?

Socrates claims that the soul should withdraw from physical senses and use only pure thought to attain true knowledge. At the same time, he claims that the soul can recollect true realities, the knowledge of which it had previously possessed, only through sense perception.