David Lewis and naturalism

What did David Lewis believe?

His contributions span every part of philosophy, from logic and the philosophy of mathematics to ethics and the philosophy of literature. In the philosophy of mind, Lewis was a materialist and a reductionist, arguing that states of the mind are simply states of the brain, functionally conceived.

Is David Lewis a Nominalist?

Lewis is officially a nominalist. He elected to identify properties with sets, and thus his view was a form a class nominalism.

Is David Lewis a functionalist?

This point is discussed in detail in ”Troubles with Functionalism” (Block, 1978; see Shoemaker, 1975, and Lycan, 1979, for critiques of such arguments). Many functionalists (such as David Lewis, D. M. Armstrong, and J. J. C.

Is David Lewis a materialist?

And he developed detailed accounts of mental content (building on Davidson’s interpretationism) and phenomenal knowledge (building on Nemirow’s ability hypothesis) that are consistent with his materialism. The synthesis Lewis ended up with is one of the central positions in contemporary debates in philosophy of mind.

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What is Lewis argument for the existence of possible worlds?

86) Lewis’s argument here is: The actual world is not a set of sentences. The actual world is a possible world. All possible worlds are the same kind of thing: one of them is a set of sentences iff they all are a set of sentences.

What is the identity paradox?

Paradox 1: Identity/difference. Identity is at once ‘sameness of generic and essential character [of a person or a thing] in different instances’ and ‘the distinguishing character or personality of an individual’ (Merriam-Webster, 2017). Thus, identity is both sameness and difference.

Is Lewis a Physicalist?

But I am still a physicalist in good standing. For I believe that every concrete thing, living or non-living, is exhaustively composed of particles, and that its intrinsic state at any moment is completely specified by specifying the state—the physical state—of this system of particles.

What is humean Supervenience?

Humean supervenience is the conjunction of three theses: Truth supervenes on being, Anti-haecceitism, and Spatiotemporalism. The first clause is a core part of Lewis’s metaphysics.

Do possible worlds exist?

Possible worlds exist – they are just as real as our world; Possible worlds are the same sort of things as our world – they differ in content, not in kind; Possible worlds cannot be reduced to something more basic – they are irreducible entities in their own right. Actuality is indexical.

What is a counterfactual in philosophy?

Counterfactual: A counterfactual assertion is a conditional whose antecedent is false and whose consequent describes how the world would have been if the antecedent had obtained. The counterfactual takes the form of a subjunctive conditional: If P had obtained, then Q would have obtained .

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What was CS Lewis’s religion?

Lewis had rejected Christianity in his early teens and lived as an atheist through his 20s. Lewis turned to theism in 1930 (although Lewis misdated it to 1929 in Surprised by Joy) and to Christianity in 1931, partly with the help of his close friend and devout Roman Catholic J.R.R. Tolkien.

Is causation transitive?

1 INTRODUCTION It has seemed obvious to most philosophers that causation is a transitive relation. For example, if your existence is caused by that of your parents, and if their existence is caused by that of your grandparents, how could your grandparents’ existence fail to cause yours?

Does calculus have a rule?

Exploring the rules of do-calculus

  • Rule 1: Decide if we can ignore an observation.
  • Rule 2: Decide if we can treat an intervention as an observation.
  • Rule 3: Decide if we can ignore an intervention.

What is the fundamental problem of causal inference?

The fundamental problem for causal inference is that, for any individual unit, we can observe only one of Y(1) or Y(0), as indicated by W; that is, we observe the value of the potential outcome under only one of the possible treatments, namely the treatment actually assigned, and the potential outcome under the other …

What is counterfactual thinking in social psychology?

1. imagining ways in which events in one’s life might have turned out differently. This often involves feelings of regret or disappointment (e.g., If only I hadn’t been so hasty) but may also involve a sense of relief, as at a narrow escape (e.g., If I had been standing three feet to the left…).

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What is social cognition in social psychology?

Social cognition is the way in which people process, remember, and use information in social contexts to explain and predict their own behavior and that of others.

What is magical thinking in psychology?

magical thinking, the belief that one’s ideas, thoughts, actions, words, or use of symbols can influence the course of events in the material world. Magical thinking presumes a causal link between one’s inner, personal experience and the external physical world.