Descartes’s concept of the Immutability of the Divine Will

Abstract: Descartes holds that God’s will is immutable. It cannot be changed by. God and, because He is supremely independent, it cannot be changed by anything else.

What is the meaning of divine immutability?

The doctrine of divine immutability (DDI) asserts that God cannot undergo real or intrinsic change in any respect. To understand the doctrine, then, we must first understand these kinds of change. Both “intrinsic” and “real” (in the relevant sense) are hard notions to elucidate.

What is the content of Descartes’s idea of God?

Descartes’ ontological argument goes as follows: (1) Our idea of God is of a perfect being, (2) it is more perfect to exist than not to exist, (3) therefore, God must exist. The second argument that Descartes gives for this conclusion is far more complex.

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What is the purpose of Descartes’s proof for the existence of God?

—The aim of Descartes’s proofs are to demonstrate the irrationality of both atheism and agnosticism by showing that reason operating alone (independently of all the commitments of faith) requires us to affirm the existence of God with the very same certainty of which it revealed itself capable when affirming our own …

What did Descartes believe about free will?

To Descartes, freedom of the will exists, and it is described as that which gives rise to a volition. 42 He believes that this is case, because the mind has the capacity to choose for itself insofar as it has adequate knowledge of the cause of its existence.

What is God’s immutability and why is it significant?

The Immutability of God is an attribute that “God is unchanging in his character, will, and covenant promises.” God’s immutability defines all God’s other attributes: God is immutably wise, merciful, good, and gracious.

Why is God’s immutability so important?

One is that divine immutability merely guarantees that God’s character is unchanging, and that God will remain faithful to his promises and covenants. This first view does not preclude other sorts of change in God.

What are innate ideas in philosophy?

innate idea, in philosophy, an idea allegedly inborn in the human mind, as contrasted with those received or compiled from experience.

What are examples of innate ideas?

From a Kantian perspective, space/time, causality, even mathematics to a degree are innate ideas. They are prior to experience and are the principles of cognition.

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Which view holds that all knowledge can only be known through experience?


In philosophy, empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience. It is one of several views of epistemology, along with rationalism and skepticism. Empiricism emphasizes the role of empirical evidence in the formation of ideas, rather than innate ideas or traditions.

What did Spinoza say about free will?

Spinoza denied free-will, because it was inconsistent with the nature of God, and with the laws to which human actions are subject. … There is nothing really contingent. Contingency, free determination, disorder, chance, lie only in our ignorance.

What does Aristotle say about free will?

1) According to the Aristotle, free will and moral responsibility is determined by our character. 2) According to absolute free will (indeterminism), free actions cannot be determined in any fashion. 3) Therefore, you cannot endorse Aristotle’s view, and also affirm absolute free will.

What does Spinoza say about free will?

But Spinoza does deny that God creates the world by some arbitrary and undetermined act of free will. God could not have done otherwise. There are no alternatives to the actual world—no other possible worlds—and there is no contingency or spontaneity within the world. Nothing could possibly have been otherwise.

What is Spinoza’s idea of God?

Substance of God

Spinoza believed that God is “the sum of the natural and physical laws of the universe and certainly not an individual entity or creator”.

What is Spinoza’s argument?

Spinoza’s Ontological Argument, once unpacked, is as follows: When two things have nothing in common, one cannot be the cause of the other (Premise 1, E1p3). It is impossible for two substances to have the same attribute (or essence) (Premise 2, E1p5).

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Why does Spinoza conclude that the Nature of God makes everything logically necessary and free will an illusion?

Why does Spinoza conclude that the nature of God makes everything logically necessary and free will an illusion? God does not act from “freedom of the will”, because his actions are determined by the laws of his own nature.

What does Spinoza mean when he says we should see everything sub specie aeternitatis?

Sub specie aeternitatis (Latin for “under the aspect of eternity”) is, from Baruch Spinoza onwards, a honorific expression describing what is universally and eternally true, without any reference to or dependence upon the temporal portions of reality.