Evolution of Enlightenment starting from Benedict de Spinoza


What did Spinoza contribute to the Enlightenment?

His teachings on the divine, on the psychological basis of prophecy, and on the limits of religious authority clearly challenged the claims of orthodoxy. Spinoza defended the philosophic life against religious persecution and argued for a new, liberal, democratic regime supportive of that life.

Was Spinoza part of the Enlightenment?

Benedict de Spinoza, Hebrew forename Baruch, Latin forename Benedictus, Portuguese Bento de Espinosa, (born November 24, 1632, Amsterdam—died February 21, 1677, The Hague), Dutch Jewish philosopher, one of the foremost exponents of 17th-century Rationalism and one of the early and seminal figures of the Enlightenment.

What is Benedict Spinoza known for?

Among philosophers, Spinoza is best known for his Ethics, a monumental work that presents an ethical vision unfolding out of a monistic metaphysics in which God and Nature are identified.

What was Spinoza’s main idea?

Spinoza attempts to prove that God is just the substance of the universe by first stating that substances do not share attributes or essences, and then demonstrating that God is a “substance” with an infinite number of attributes, thus the attributes possessed by any other substances must also be possessed by God.

Does Pascal believe in God?

Pascal argues that a rational person should live as though God exists and seek to believe in God.
Analysis with decision theory.

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God exists (G) God does not exist (¬G)
Belief (B) +∞ (infinite gain) −c (finite loss)
Disbelief (¬B) −∞ (infinite loss) +c (finite gain)

Who is known as the father of modern philosophy?

René Descartes

René Descartes, (born March 31, 1596, La Haye, Touraine, France—died February 11, 1650, Stockholm, Sweden), French mathematician, scientist, and philosopher.

What is Spinoza’s view of God?

In propositions one through fifteen of Part One, Spinoza presents the basic elements of his picture of God. God is the infinite, necessarily existing (that is, self-caused), unique substance of the universe. There is only one substance in the universe; it is God; and everything else that is, is in God.

What did Baruch Spinoza discover?

Spinoza solved the mind-body dilemma of Descartes by maintaining that God and Nature are one, that indeed everything is one, with mind and body being just different facets of one infinite entity.

What did Spinoza teach?

Spinoza’s most famous and provocative idea is that God is not the creator of the world, but that the world is part of God. This is often identified as pantheism, the doctrine that God and the world are the same thing – which conflicts with both Jewish and Christian teachings.

What is Spinoza’s world view?

Instead, Spinoza argues the whole of the natural world, including human beings, follows one and the same set of natural laws (so, humans are not special), that everything that happens could not have happened differently, that the universe is one inherently active totality (which can be conceived of as either “God” or “ …

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