How can we have responsibility in the Stoic’s deterministic universe?

Are Stoics determinism?

The Stoics were determinists insofar as they maintained that every state or event is necessitated by prior causes; but, at the same time, they were compatibilists since they were willing to defend the thesis that prior necessitation does not make impossible that we deserve praise or blame for the actions we perform.

What is the main argument of determinism against freedom?

The central question is whether determinism is compatible or consistent with free choices and actions, with holding people responsible for and crediting them with responsibility for actions, and with imposing justified punishments on people and rewarding them.

Did Stoics believe in free will?

Stoicism. The Stoics solidified the idea of natural laws controlling all things, including the mind. Zeno of Citium, the founder of Stoicism, saw that every event had a cause, and that cause necessitated the event. Given exactly the same circumstances, exactly the same result will occur.

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Is stoicism A soft determinism?

The Stoics were hard determinists, so hard that they believed in a theory of “eternal recurrence,” according to which the entire course of the universe down to the last detail would be repeated in cycles forever.

What is Epicurean theory?

Epicureanism is a system of philosophy based on the teachings of Epicurus, founded around 307 B.C. It teaches that the greatest good is to seek modest pleasures in order to attain a state of tranquillity, freedom from fear (“ataraxia”) and absence from bodily pain (“aponia”).

What are the 4 main ideas of Stoicism?

The Stoics elaborated a detailed taxonomy of virtue, dividing virtue into four main types: wisdom, justice, courage, and moderation.

Why is determinism a challenge to moral responsibility?

Philosophers and scientists who believe that the universe is deterministic and that determinism is incompatible with free will are called “hard” determinists. Since moral responsibility seems to require free will, hard determinism implies that no one is morally responsible for his actions.

How can we differentiate freedom from determinism?

The determinist approach proposes that all behavior has a cause and is thus predictable. Free will is an illusion, and our behavior is governed by internal or external forces over which we have no control.

How are freedom responsibility and morality linked to each other?

without free will there is no moral responsibility: if moral responsibility exists, then someone is morally responsible for something he has done or for something he has left undone; to be morally responsible for some act or failure to act is at least to be able to have acted otherwise, whatever else it may involve; to …

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Do Stoics believe in fate?

Stoicism took over this outlook and developed it into a doctrine of ‘fate’ (heimarmenē), which by the time of Chrysippus had become a full-scale thesis of determinism. That everything that happens is predetermined is a thesis which flows easily from all three branches of Stoic philosophy.

Is determinism a theory?

Determinism is the philosophical view that all events are determined completely by previously existing causes. Deterministic theories throughout the history of philosophy have sprung from diverse and sometimes overlapping motives and considerations.

How did cynicism influence stoicism?

Stoicism is a philosophy that teaches us to accept what is out of our control, including the behavior of others. While the Cynics may want to break society out of their social norms, Stoicism would counsel us to accept social norms and not take on the impossible task of changing everyone to a different way of life.

How do you overcome cynicism?

11 Tips to Stop Being Cynical

  1. Admit to yourself that you are cynical. Once you acknowledge this, it will be easier to work on changing your attitude. …
  2. Embrace positivity. …
  3. Practice gratitude. …
  4. Breathe. …
  5. Be mindful. …
  6. Be playful, even for just five minutes every day. …
  7. Limit your news consumption. …
  8. Reveal your true self.

What was the main idea of cynicism skepticism stoicism epicureanism?

Epicureanism is a system of philosophy based on the teachings of Epicurus, founded around 307 B.C. It teaches that the greatest good is to seek modest pleasures in order to attain a state of tranquillity, freedom from fear (“ataraxia”) and absence from bodily pain (“aponia”).

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Did Cynics believe in God?

He taught a strict asceticism, and called pleasure an evil and suffering good because the cravings of the body distracted the soul from gaining real education. As for the gods, Antisthenes said they were all bogus and there was only one true natural God.

Are Cynics happy?

A cynic is by definition not happy. But unlike a hedonist, who thinks happiness is the best state to be in, a cynic has come to believe that unhappiness is the enduring condition of reality, only occasionally leavened by anything else.

How does the cynic try to live?

Cynics wanted people to live their lives in the light of that understanding – to free themselves from their self-imposed fetters, and to live in a way that in modern terms we would call ‘authentic’. Diogenes himself was clear enough that there were few such authentic human beings around.