I am having trouble Alvin Goldman’s example

What is the problem with Goldman’s causal theory of knowledge?

One of the problematic points that Goldman faces with his theory of knowledge is the contradiction between requiring a causal connection between the fact of the matter and the belief of the matter at hand and the use of non-causal processes to arrive at the belief.

Why the generality problem is everybody’s problem?

The target beliefs in Heart Attack and Reliable Testimony are clearly justified. But if the generality problem has no solution, then no theory of justification can yield the result that those beliefs are justified.

What is the generality problem philosophy?

The generality problem for reliabilism is the problem of determining, for any given belief, which belief-forming process type is relevant for justification-determining purposes.

What is Goldman’s theory?

Lecture 10: Goldman’s Causal Theory of Knowledge

I. The Causal Theory Introduced. The basic idea behind the causal theory of knowledge: in order have knowledge, one’s belief that things are thus-and-so must be caused by things’ actually being thus-and-so.

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Is knowledge justified true belief gettier?

The JTB account holds that knowledge is equivalent to justified true belief; if all three conditions (justification, truth, and belief) are met of a given claim, then we have knowledge of that claim.

What is knowledge according to Reliabilism?

Ramsey (1931) is often credited with the first articulation of a reliabilist account of knowledge. He claimed that knowledge is true belief that is certain and obtained by a reliable process. That idea lay more-or-less dormant until the 1960s, when reliabilist theories emerged in earnest.

What is gettier’s challenge to the classical analysis of knowledge?

The Justified-True-Belief Analysis of Knowledge. Gettier cases are meant to challenge our understanding of propositional knowledge. This is knowledge which is described by phrases of the form “knowledge that p,” with “p” being replaced by some indicative sentence (such as “Kangaroos have no wings”).

What does Ultima facie mean?

Define Ultima Facie. All things considered. Define intrinsically valuable. Valuable in an essential or natural way.

What is Nozick’s truth tracking account of knowledge?

The core idea of Robert Nozick’s truth tracking theory is that if one has a tendency to believe something when it’s true, and not believe it when it’s false, then one knows it.

What are Nozick’s four conditions for knowledge?

Nozick’s Conditions on Knowledge:

(1) P is true. (2) S believes that p. (3) If p were not true, S would not believe that p. (4) If p were true, S would believe that p.

What does it mean to track the truth?

Raykhelson. Nozick believes that in order to have knowledge, the belief needs to track the truth. In other words, for one to have knowledge, one must believe P, P must be true, and one’s belief’s must track the truth value of P. For this reason, the casual account of knowledge must be false.

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What is the tracking theory of knowledge?

Tracking theorists hypothesize that in order to qualify as knowledge, a true belief must track the relevant fact-the belief must depend in an appropriate way upon the fact that accounts for its truth.

What is the closure principle in philosophy?

A simple closure principle is the principle that knowledge is closed under entailment: If a subject S knows that p, and p entails q, then S knows that q. Less schematically, this says that if one knows one thing to be true and the known claim logically entails a second thing, then one knows the second thing to be true.

What does closed under entailment mean?

Roughly speaking, the set of things we know is closed under entailment (or under deduction or logical implication), so we know that a given claim is true upon recognizing, and accepting thereby, that it follows from what we know.