Is there a loophole in Kitcher’s argument for the inadequacy of the law of association?

What is essential to contain in an explanation for it to consider as a deductive Nomological explanation?

According to the Deductive-Nomological Model, a scientific explanation consists of two major “constituents”: an explanandum, which is a sentence “describing the phenomenon to be explained” and an explanans, “the class of those sentences which are adduced to account for the phenomenon” (Hempel & Oppenheim 1948 [1965: …

What condition must be satisfied for a scientific explanation to be correct?

That is: (a) substantiated – a theory cannot be independent of prior work and evidence, there needs to be some justification of it, within previous work in the field (other currently accepted theories) and in the sum of available evidence.

What is explanatory unification?

Explanatory unification—the urge to “explain much by little”—serves as an ideal of theorizing not only in natural sciences but also in the social sciences, most notably in economics. The ideal is occasionally challenged by appealing to the complexity and diversity of social systems and processes in space and time.

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What makes an explanation true?

The evidence makes them true because they can be reproduced by other experts. For that reason, explanations in the AOK have to be true. On the other hand, the above claim can be refuted by saying that good explanations in natural sciences are the ones that allow individuals to gain knowledge.

What 3 conditions must be satisfied for a scientific theory to be valid?

Scientific theories must be: consistent, parsimonious, correctable, empirically testable/verifiable, useful, and progressive.

What qualities do you think a scientific theory should have?

A scientific theory should be:

  • Testable: Theories can be supported through a series of scientific research projects or experiments. …
  • Replicable: In other words, theories must also be able to be repeated by others. …
  • Stable: Another characteristic of theories is that they must be stable. …
  • Simple: A theory should be simple.

How do laws differ from theories?

The main difference between Law and Theory is that a law is based on facts, it is a detailed explanation of how some part of the natural world works, and is generally based on mathematics and on the other hand a theory is a hypothesis that seeks to explain something which may be based on a coincidence or a fact that …

What is an explanation in critical thinking?

An explanation is a rationale in which the reason presents a cause of some fact represented by the conclusion. Its purpose is to help us understand how or why that fact occurs.

Does a good explanation need to be true?

With regard to the Natural Sciences and the Arts, good explanations do not have to reflect the truth. However, good explanations in both subjective and objective contexts must be true, for the extent to which something is true is based on belief while the extent of truthfulness is founded on reason.

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What makes good explanation objects?

They are: (i) the reason conception; (ii) the familiarity conception; (iii) the unification conception; (iv) the necessity conception; and (v) the causal conception. The first two of these make understanding an epistemic matter; the last two make it an ontological matter; the middle one can go either way.

Why do we seek knowledge TOK objects?

It enables students to demonstrate the application of their skills and knowledge, and to pursue their personal interests. TOK exhibition is an individual task where specific objects of real-life and personal importance are connected with Internal Assessment (IA) prompts within one of the TOK themes.

What makes a good explanation Tok object?

Objects should have a specific real-world context, and not be generic examples of something. Objects can be something you have created, but not for the exhibition. All three objects should link to your IA prompt.

On what grounds might we doubt a claim?

We doubt a claim when we are lacking certainty and reliability regarding those who are making the claim, the sources of the claim, or when the things about which the claim is being made are not sufficiently justified, that is sufficient reasons have not been supplied for the claim.

Does knowledge belong to only a particular community of Knowers?

Originally Answered: Does certain knowledge belong only to particular communities of knowers? Yes, right down to the family. You will have memories of family celebration that only your family could know. Tribes often have their own language and shared experiences.