Is Vox Day right about “extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence”?


Do Extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence?

“Extraordinary” evidence is only required when it must be balanced against a very large number of contrary observations. The crux of the matter is that in order to properly characterize a claim as “extraordinary,” there must exist weighty evidence of the exact antithesis.

Who said Extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence?

“Extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence” was a phrase made popular by Carl Sagan who reworded Laplace’s principle, which says that “the weight of evidence for an extraordinary claim must be proportioned to its strangeness” (Gillispie et al., 1999).

Did Carl Sagan say extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence?

In 1979 astronomer Carl Sagan popularized the aphorism “extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence” (ECREE). But Sagan never defined the term “extraordinary.” Ambiguity in what constitutes “extraordinary” has led to misuse of the aphorism.

What does the phrase Extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence mean?

The Sagan standard is the adage that “extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence” (a concept abbreviated as ECREE). This signifies that the more unlikely a certain claim is, given existing evidence on the subject, the greater the standard of proof that is expected of it.

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What is an example of an extraordinary claim?

The claim, “I had a chicken sandwich for lunch,” might be an example of an ordinary claim. Whereas “I slew a dragon last night before dinner,” might be an example of an extraordinary claim. One of these claims is likely to be believed with little verifying evidence, and the other is not.

What is Sagan doctrine?

The Sagan standard is a neologism abbreviating the aphorism that “extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence” (ECREE). It is named after science communicator Carl Sagan who used the exact phrase on his television program Cosmos.

How does burden of proof work?

In a civil lawsuit, the burden of proof rests on the plaintiff or the person filing the suit. The plaintiff should prove that the allegations are true and that the defendant, or the other party, caused damages. When it comes to establishing a civil case, the plaintiff must usually do so by a preponderance of evidence.

What are the 3 burdens of proof?

There are three burdens of proof that exist for most cases: proof beyond a reasonable doubt, clear and convincing evidence, and preponderance of the evidence.

What are the 4 standards of proof?

Depending on the jurisdiction and type of action, the legal standard to satisfy the burden of proof in U.S. litigation may include, but is not limited to: beyond a reasonable doubt. clear and convincing evidence. preponderance of the evidence.

What are the three standards of proof?

This degree of satisfaction is called the standard of proof and takes three basic forms: (a) “preponderance of the evidence,” the standard used in most civil cases; (b) “beyond a reasonable doubt,” the standard used in criminal trials; and (c) “clear and convincing evi- dence,” an intermediate standard.

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What other kinds of proof are typically required for a conviction?

The three primary standards of proof are proof beyond a reasonable doubt, preponderance of the evidence and clear and convincing evidence.

  • Preponderance of the Evidence. This is the lowest standard of proof. …
  • Clear and Convincing Evidence. …
  • Proof Beyond a Reasonable Doubt. …
  • Legal Assistance.

What a plaintiff must prove is largely determined by?

A plaintiff in a civil lawsuit for damages must prove by only apreponderance of the evidence that the defendant committed a tort and that the plaintiff suffered some loss for which she can be compensated.