Material theory of induction: why not abandon induction altogether?


What is Hume’s conclusion about the problem of induction?

This again leads to the circularity objection, because the Uniformity Principle, as a justification of induction itself is based on an induction. Hume thus concludes that not reason, but custom alone, leads us to conclude that induction is a valid inference.

What is main point of Hume’s problem of induction?

The original problem of induction can be simply put. It concerns the support or justification of inductive methods; methods that predict or infer, in Hume’s words, that “instances of which we have had no experience resemble those of which we have had experience” (THN, 89).

Is there any good answer to the problem of induction?

The most common solution to the problem of induction is to unshackle it from deduction. In this view, induction was mistakenly jury-rigged into a system of deductive inference where it did not belong, i.e. induction was considered subordinate to the apparatus of basic logic.

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What is the problem of induction why is it a problem?

According to Popper, the problem of induction as usually conceived is asking the wrong question: it is asking how to justify theories given they cannot be justified by induction. Popper argued that justification is not needed at all, and seeking justification “begs for an authoritarian answer”.

What is the new problem of induction?

The new riddle of induction, for Goodman, rests on our ability to distinguish lawlike from non-lawlike generalizations. Lawlike generalizations are capable of confirmation while non-lawlike generalizations are not. Lawlike generalizations are required for making predictions.

What is the problem of induction in philosophy?

Philosophers argue that although falsification may temporarily solve the problem of induction, it suggest that in fact we don’t know much about scientific knowledge and we don’t know that many generalizations are indeed false. Another solution to the problem of induction is Pragmatism.

Does Hume reject induction?

It is important to note that Hume did not deny that he or anyone else formed beliefs on the basis of induction; he denied only that people have any reason to hold such beliefs (therefore, also, no one can know that any such belief is true).

What does it mean to say that one thing causes another if you are David Hume?

Based on this observation, Hume argues against the very concept of causation, or cause and effect. We often assume that one thing causes another, but it is just as possible that one thing does not cause the other. Hume claims that causation is a habit of association, a belief that is unfounded and meaningless.

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How does Kant solve the problem of induction?

Kant’s Externalist Solution to the Problem of Induction

sorts of reasoning processes: “demonstrative reasoning, or that concerning relations of ideas, and moral reasoning, or that concerning matter of fact and existence.”

What is the Problem of Induction as it pertains to belief in cause and effect?

We generally think that the observations we make are able to justify some expectations or predictions about observations we have not yet made, as well as general claims that go beyond the observed.

What does the problem of induction have to do with scientific knowledge?

The problem of induction arises when one makes an inference about an unobserved body of data based on an observed body of data. However, there is no assurance that the inference in question will be valid because the next datum we observe may differ from those already gathered.

Why can’t the principle of induction be justified empirically or a priori?

The principle cannot be justified a priori because it is possible to conceive of a world where nature is not uniform and the principle is not analytically true (i.e. the predicate of uniformity is not contained within the subject of nature), we can easily conceive of induction failing.