What is the concept of mereology?
Mereology (from the Greek μερος, ‘part’) is the theory of parthood relations: of the relations of part to whole and the relations of part to part within a whole.
What is gunk in philosophy?
In mereology, an area of philosophical logic, the term gunk applies to any whole whose parts all have further proper parts. That is, a gunky object is not made of indivisible atoms or simples. Because parthood is transitive, any part of gunk is itself gunk.
What is mereological universalism?
Mereological universalism—hereafter universalism—is the thesis that necessarily, any (material) objects whatsoever compose another (material) object. 1. Universalists have. found it necessary to argue for their position and it is not hard to see why.
What is mereological reductionism?
Mereological reductionism is a doctrine to say that the whole can be reduced to the parts. But the mereological reductionist encounters at least two serious objections. One is dilemma style objection, and the other is so-called sinkhole objection.
What are simples in philosophy?
In contemporary mereology, a simple is any thing that has no proper parts. Sometimes the term “atom” is used, although in recent years the term “simple” has become the standard. Simples are to be contrasted with atomless gunk (where something is “gunky” if it is such that every proper part has a further proper part).
Who created Panpsychism?
Panpsychism is the view that all things have a mind or a mind-like quality. The word itself was coined by the Italian philosopher Francesco Patrizi in the sixteenth century, and derives from the two Greek words pan (all) and psyche (soul or mind).
What is Supervenience Physicalism?
The physicalist who appeals to supervenience is trying to honor the fact that the mental depends entirely on the physical without being committed to the view that mental properties are identical with physical properties. Suppose, as is widely believed, that mental properties are not identical with physical properties.
Who championed the theory of Organicism?
At the turn of the 18th-century, Immanuel Kant championed a revival of organicisitic thought by stressing, in his written works, “the inter-relatedness of the organism and its parts[,] and the circular causality” inherent to the inextricable entanglement of the greater whole.
Who is the father of axiology?
The term was first used by Paul Lapie, in 1902, and Eduard von Hartmann, in 1908. The distinction between intrinsic and extrinsic value is central to axiology. One conceptualization holds that something is intrinsically valuable if it is good in itself or good for its own sake.
What is ontological nihilism?
Ontological nihilism is the radical-sounding thesis that there is nothing at all. This chapter first discusses how the most plausible forms of this thesis aim to be slightly less radical than they sound and what they will have to do in order to succeed in their less radical ambitions.
What is self nihilism?
Nihilism is the belief that all values are baseless and that nothing can be known or communicated. It is often associated with extreme pessimism and a radical skepticism that condemns existence. A true nihilist would believe in nothing, have no loyalties, and no purpose other than, perhaps, an impulse to destroy.
What is cosmic nihilism?
Cosmic nihilism is the position that reality or the cosmos is either wholly or significantly unintelligible and that it provides no foundation for human aims and principles. Particularly, it may regard the cosmos as distinctly hostile or indifferent to humanity.
Was Kierkegaard a nihilist?
Søren Kierkegaard (1813–1855): The nineteenth century Danish theologian Søren Kierkegaard—who many academics regard among the first existentialist philosophers—wrote about nihilism, calling it “leveling.” Kierkegaard felt that leveling was not a positive thing, because the problem of nihilism was that it meant …
What is the opposite of nihilism?
So Existentialism is the opposite of nihilism: the nihilist says “There is no god, no heaven or hell, so screw it: there can be no right or wrong.
What is Nietzsche nihilism?
According to Nietzsche, this state of nihilism – the idea that life has no meaning or value – cannot be avoided; we must go through it, as frightening and lonely as that will be.
What was Nietzsche’s theory?
Nietzsche claimed the exemplary human being must craft his/her own identity through self-realization and do so without relying on anything transcending that life—such as God or a soul.
Is Nietzsche an existentialist?
Kierkegaard and Nietzsche were two of the first philosophers considered fundamental to the existentialist movement, though neither used the term “existentialism” and it is unclear whether they would have supported the existentialism of the 20th century.