Problem of Induction: Dissolved

What is the main problem of induction?

According to Popper, the problem of induction as usually conceived is asking the wrong question: it is asking how to justify theories given they cannot be justified by induction. Popper argued that justification is not needed at all, and seeking justification “begs for an authoritarian answer”.

What is the problem with induction in philosophy?

The problem of induction is to find a way to avoid this conclusion, despite Hume’s argument. Thus, it is the imagination which is taken to be responsible for underpinning the inductive inference, rather than reason.

What was the problem of induction identified by Hume?

The original problem of induction can be simply put. It concerns the support or justification of inductive methods; methods that predict or infer, in Hume’s words, that “instances of which we have had no experience resemble those of which we have had experience” (THN, 89).

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Is there a solution to the problem of induction?

The most common solution to the problem of induction is to unshackle it from deduction. In this view, induction was mistakenly jury-rigged into a system of deductive inference where it did not belong, i.e. induction was considered subordinate to the apparatus of basic logic.

What is the problem of induction and with which philosopher is the statement of the problem most directly associated?

It was given its classic formulation by the Scottish philosopher David Hume (1711–76), who noted that all such inferences rely, directly or indirectly, on the rationally unfounded premise that the future will resemble the past.

What does the problem of induction explain about the future?

A problem of induction is that the future might not be similar to the past, making inductive statements uncertain in nature.

What is the problem of induction quizlet?

the drawing of a conclusion (an ‘inductive inference’) about unobserved cases based on what has been observed. Conclusions about the future based on the past. You just studied 12 terms!

What is the solution to the problem of induction proposed by Popper?

Popper’s solution to the problem of induction is hypothetico-deductivism and falsificationism.

Is the problem of induction a pseudo problem?

In 1955, Goodman set out to ‘dissolve’ the problem of induction, that is, to argue that the old problem of induction is a mere pseudo- problem not worthy of serious philosophical attention (1955, 65–8).

How does Kant solve the problem of induction?

In short, Kant’s answer is that ‘causality’ isn’t, contra Hume, merely constant perceived conjunction. If this is the case, then the problem of induction applies and it is not possible to infer that there is a necessary connection between a cause and its effect.

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What is induction vs deduction?

Deductive reasoning, or deduction, is making an inference based on widely accepted facts or premises. If a beverage is defined as “drinkable through a straw,” one could use deduction to determine soup to be a beverage. Inductive reasoning, or induction, is making an inference based on an observation, often of a sample.

What is the problem with deductive reasoning?

A common error in deductive reasoning is affirming the consequent: asserting a conditional and its consequent (the ‘then’ clause) and concluding that the antecedent must be true. Example: If it’s a duck, it quacks; and it quacks; so it must be a duck.

How can inductive and deductive reasoning be used to solve problems?

Where inductive thinking uses experience and proven observations to guess the outcome, deductive reasoning uses theories and beliefs to rationalize and prove a specific conclusion. The goal of inductive reasoning is to predict a likely outcome, while the goal of deductive reasoning to prove a fact.

Why is inductive reasoning prone to error?

Later, David Hume emphasized the shortcomings of inductive reasoning, as it was prone to errors due to the need to infer a global rule based on the experience of only a subset of instances. In purely academic terms, there is a strong distinction between deductive and inductive inferences.