How does Russell distinguish between our knowledge of ourselves and our knowledge of other people’s minds?
Bertrand Russell. Russell used the distinction between knowledge by acquaintance and description to articulate a foundationalist epistemology where knowledge by acquaintance is the most basic kind of knowledge and knowledge by description is inferential (Russell 1910 and 1912, ch. 5).
How does Russell define knowledge what does he mean by this?
Russell’s definition of knowledge by description builds naturally on this: To know some thing or object by a definite description is to know that it is the so-and-so or that the so-and-so exists, i.e., that there is exactly one object that is so-and-so (Russell 1912: 82–3).
What is the difference between knowledge that and knowledge how?
Knowledge-that is knowledge that answers a question about a thing. It is informative of a thing’s nature or kind. Knowledge-how is knowledge that is expressed in a performance. It is a knowledge that is known in the doing, such as riding a bike.
What does Russell think of the view that man is the measure of all things?
He writes of the “widespread tendency towards the view which tells us that Man is the measure of all things, that truth is man-made, that space and time and the world of universals are properties of the mind, and that, if there be anything not created by the mind it is unknowable.” This position robs philosophy of its …
What question does Russell pose in Chapter I of the problems of philosophy?
Bertrand Russell begins his book with a question: “Is there any knowledge in the world which is so certain that no reasonable man could doubt it?” This question, he says, is much harder to answer than it might seem. To show why his question is challenging, Russell offers a description of the writing table in his study.
What was Bertrand Russell’s philosophy?
Russell was a believer in the scientific method, that science reaches only tentative answers, that scientific progress is piecemeal, and attempts to find organic unities were largely futile. He believed the same was true of philosophy.
Does knowledge have to be justified?
We can then say that, to constitute knowledge, a belief must be both true and justified. Note that because of luck, a belief can be unjustified yet true; and because of human fallibility, a belief can be justified yet false. In other words, truth and justification are two independent conditions of beliefs.
What is the second factor according to Russell required to acquire wisdom?
Answer: Bertrand Russell discusses several factors that contribute to wisdom in his essay “Knowledge and Wisdom.” According to him, a sense of proportion, comprehensiveness with broad feeling, emancipation from personal prejudices and the tyranny of sensory perception, impartiality, and awareness of human needs and …
Why is it essential for everyone to be well acquainted with what is happening in the external world?
It is essential for everyone to be well-acquainted with what is happening the world. Such knowledge helps us to find better adjustment in our society. Problems of human race need to be identified and solution measures sought at world level.
What is the relationship between philosophical contemplation and the non self According to Russell?
True contemplation, according to Russell, finds satisfaction and its value in all that enlarges and ameliorates the not-Self, or the objects of philosophical reflection.
Why does Russell maintain that the uncertainty of philosophy is more apparent than real?
Why does Russell maintain that the “uncertainty of philosophy is more apparent than real?” Russell claims that as soon as definite knowledge concerning any subject becomes possible, it ceases to be philosophy and becomes a separate science.
Why does Russell think that the uncertainty of philosophy is a valuable thing?
Why does Russell think that the uncertainty of philosophy is a valuable thing? Because studying philosophy helps us realize that the world is puzzling. a. the theory of knowledge.
How does Bertrand Russell think philosophy contemplation will affect our actions?
Thus contemplation enlarges not only the objects of our thoughts, but also the objects of our actions and our affections: it makes us citizens of the universe, not only of one walled city at war with all the rest.
What does Bertrand Russell identify as the value of philosophy?
The primary value of philosophy according to Russell is that it loosens the grip of uncritically held opinion and opens the mind to a liberating range of new possibilities to explore.
Where is one place Bertrand Russell believes our prejudices might come from?
The man who has no tincture of philosophy goes through life imprisoned in the prejudices derived from common sense, from the habitual beliefs of his age or his nation, and from convictions which have grown up in his mind without the co-operation or consent of his deliberate reason.
What does Russell mean by common sense?
On occasion Russell refers to common sense in such a way as to mean no more than conventional ‘wisdom’.
What does Russell mean by prejudice and common sense?
When Russell talks about things like “prejudice” and “common sense,” what does he mean? How does it relate to “thinking critically” and “seeing all sides of the issues?” He means those notions that are conceived without actual evidence to back them up–everyday habits of common sense, culture, and custom.