What are some criticisms of Plato’s “all opposites are generated out of each other” in Phaedo?


What is Plato’s argument from opposites?

He states; “the beautiful is the opposite of the ugly and the just of the unjust and a thousand of those other things of a kind” (70e) Plato uses this argument of opposites in order to clarify that everything must have an opposite, therefore, there must surely be an opposite to the simple act of living which is death …

What is the argument concerning opposites or cyclicals?

The Cyclical Argument, or Opposites Argument explains that Forms are eternal and unchanging, and as the soul always brings life, then it must not die, and is necessarily “imperishable”. As the body is mortal and is subject to physical death, the soul must be its indestructible opposite.

What does Plato argue in Phaedo?

The Phaedo gives us four different arguments for the immortality of the soul: The Argument from Opposites, the Theory of Recollection, the Argument from Affinity, and the final argument, given as a response to Cebes’ objection. Plato does not seem to place equal weight on all four of these arguments.

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Are Plato and Phaedo the same?

The Phaedo is one of the most widely read dialogues written by the ancient Greek philosopher Plato.

Can something exist without its opposite?

If nothing exists without its opposite, then literally nothing exists without its opposite; the universe which comprises everything has to exist in juxtaposition to nothing. If, nothing existed before the Big Bang, then everything also existed before the Big Bang! It’s the universal law.

Why is the Theory of recollection wrong?

The problem with his theory is that it’s not completely convincing that it gives a good description of learning. The theory of recollection describes learning as remembering. A problem with that is that the slave boy example does not prove that learning is remembering.

What is Plato’s definition of death?

Plato and Socrates define death as the ultimate separation of the soul and body. They regard the body as a prison for the soul and view death as the means of freedom for the soul. Considering Plato and Socrates definition of death, in the life of a true philosopher, death does not occur when bodily functions cease.

What are Plato’s arguments for the immortality of the soul?

Plato believed that the body and the soul were two separate entities, the body being mortal and the soul being immortal. In Plato’s phaedo, this is further explained by Socrates. He claims that by living a philosophical life, we are able to eventually free the soul from the body and its needs.

What does the argument from opposites try to establish about the soul?

Plato uses this concept to argue that life comes from its opposite (death), to support a belief in immortality. Plato claims that ‘opposites [come] from opposites’ and suggests that there is a ‘necessary law’ in existence; everything which has an opposite is brought about by that opposite alone.

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When did Plato write Phaedo?

Greek writing style

…of a manuscript of Plato’s Phaedo (c. 100 ce; Egypt Exploration Society, London) shares the informality of cursive but regularizes the letter forms. Written on a larger scale and with more formality, this round hand can be very beautiful.

How does Plato divide us in Phaedo?

In the Republic, for instance, Plato suggests that the soul is divided into three parts: reason, appetite, and spirit, or will. In this view, it would seem that the soul is divisible into three parts.)

Does the Theory of recollection presented in the Phaedo differ from that of the Meno?

Commentary. The Theory of Recollection is laid out in more detail in Plato’s Meno, and the discussion in the Phaedo alludes to, and seems to assume prior knowledge of, this earlier discussion. The Phaedo and the Meno are consistent, though, and the presentation of the theory in each dialogue can stand on its own.

What is the argument of recollection?

The second argument, known as the Theory of Recollection, asserts that learning is essentially an act of recollecting things we knew before we were born but then forgot. True knowledge, argues Socrates, is knowledge of the eternal and unchanging Forms that underlie perceptible reality.

What is Meno’s paradox and how does Socrates well Plato really answer the challenge it presents?

Meno is confused by his answer and claims that Gorgias has taught him virtue. Socrates rebukes him and repeats that he cannot learn what virtue is. This leads up to Meno’s famous paradox, in which he asks Socrates how he can learn anything if he does not know what he is searching for.

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What is Plato’s theory of recollection?

In the Theory of Recollection, according to Plato, it is the remembrance of the ideas that each human being possesses in an innate way in the soul. Knowledge is not found in the external world, but is internally located, in the consciousness.

What is Plato’s distinction between opinion and knowledge?

Plato drew a sharp distinction between knowledge, which is certain, and mere true opinion, which is not certain. Opinions derive from the shifting world of sensation; knowledge derives from the world of timeless Forms, or essences.

What were Plato’s beliefs?

In metaphysics Plato envisioned a systematic, rational treatment of the forms and their interrelations, starting with the most fundamental among them (the Good, or the One); in ethics and moral psychology he developed the view that the good life requires not just a certain kind of knowledge (as Socrates had suggested)