What is possibility and necessity?
Possibility and necessity are related. Something is possible if its failing to occur is not necessary; if something is necessary, its failure to occur is not possible. Divers (2002), 3-4, provides a nice summary: “Possibility rules out impossibility and requires (exclusively) contingency or necessity.
What is a possible world in philosophy?
Definition. A possible world is a complete way things might be. Possible worlds are alternative worlds one of which is the actual world. Philosophers use the notion of a possible world to define and discuss ideas such as possibility or necessity.
What is a possible world in logic?
A possible world is a complete and consistent way the world is or could have been. Possible worlds are widely used as a formal device in logic, philosophy, and linguistics in order to provide a semantics for intensional and modal logic.
Do possible worlds exist?
Possible worlds exist – they are just as real as our world; Possible worlds are the same sort of things as our world – they differ in content, not in kind; Possible worlds cannot be reduced to something more basic – they are irreducible entities in their own right. Actuality is indexical.
What does metaphysically necessary mean?
Summary. If something could not have been otherwise, no matter how the world had turned out, that thing is metaphysically necessary.
What does necessity mean in philosophy?
necessity, in logic and metaphysics, a modal property of a true proposition whereby it is not possible for the proposition to be false and of a false proposition whereby it is not possible for the proposition to be true.
Who invented possible worlds?
Definition. 1The concept of possible worlds (henceforth PW), loosely inspired by Leibniz’ philosophy, was developed in the second half of the 20th century by philosophers of the analytic school (Kripke, Lewis, Hintikka , Plantinga , Rescher) as a means to solve problems in formal semantics.
Who came up with possible worlds?
The originator and, by far, the best known proponent of concretism is David Lewis. For Lewis and, as noted, concretists generally, the actual world is the concrete physical universe as it is, stretched out in space-time. As he rather poetically expresses it (1986, 1):
What is contingent truth?
A contingent truth is one that is true, but could have been false. A necessary truth is one that must be true; a contingent truth is one that is true as it happens, or as things are, but that did not have to be true.
What is Lewis argument for the existence of possible worlds?
86) Lewis’s argument here is: The actual world is not a set of sentences. The actual world is a possible world. All possible worlds are the same kind of thing: one of them is a set of sentences iff they all are a set of sentences.
What is the incredulous stare?
The incredulous stare is a gesture meant to say that modal realism fails the test. That is a matter of judgement and, with respect, I disagree. I acknowledge that my denial of common sense opinion is severe, and I think it is entirely right and proper to count that as a serious cost.
What is the subject of ontology?
Ontology is the branch of philosophy that studies concepts such as existence, being, becoming, and reality. It includes the questions of how entities are grouped into basic categories and which of these entities exist on the most fundamental level.
What is ontological evil?
The ontological problem of evil suggests that we change our focus from the provinciality of this world to the whole scope of metaphysical possibility: if there is a God, his existence must be consistent with all of it.
Who is the father of axiology?
The term was first used by Paul Lapie, in 1902, and Eduard von Hartmann, in 1908. The distinction between intrinsic and extrinsic value is central to axiology. One conceptualization holds that something is intrinsically valuable if it is good in itself or good for its own sake.
What is the study of first things called?
ontology, the philosophical study of being in general, or of what applies neutrally to everything that is real. It was called “first philosophy” by Aristotle in Book IV of his Metaphysics.
How does metaphysics apply to life?
Metaphysical studies generally seek to explain inherent or universal elements of reality which are not easily discovered or experienced in our everyday life. As such, it is concerned with explaining the features of reality that exist beyond the physical world and our immediate senses.
Who is the first philosophy in the world?
Aristotle. … metaphysics: he calls it “first philosophy” and defines it as the discipline that studies “being as being.”