What ‘internal’ or ‘divine’ sign is Socrates referring to in The Republic when talking about the scarcity of true philosophers?

What was Socrates personal or divine sign?

Probably the fullest description of Socrates’ daimonion is in Plato’s Apology 31c, where Socrates says: I have a divine sign [daimonion] from the god which… began when I was a child. It is a voice, and whenever it speaks it turns me away from something I am about to do, but it never turns me towards anything.

What might Socrates mean when he talks about his divine sign?

The “daimonion” of Socrates was his personal means of communication with the divine; it was a “voice” that presented him signs about the future.

What does Socrates say in the republic?

Socrates offers three argument in favor of the just life over the unjust life: (i) the just man is wise and good, and the unjust man is ignorant and bad (349b); (ii) injustice produces internal disharmony which prevents effective actions (351b); (iii) virtue is excellence at a thing’s function and the just person lives …

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What does Socrates say about justice in the Republic?

Socrates seeks to define justice as one of the cardinal human virtues, and he understands the virtues as states of the soul. So his account of what justice is depends upon his account of the human soul. According to the Republic, every human soul has three parts: reason, spirit, and appetite.

What do you think Socrates is talking about when he speaks of that part in us that is harmed by unjust actions and benefited by just actions?

Socrates suggests that this part of us is far more valuable than the body, and that life would hardly be worth living if it were damaged. In this case, it is of even greater importance not to take anyone and everyone’s advice, but to listen only to experts who know best how to handle such matters.

What was Socrates philosophy?

Philosophy. Socrates believed that philosophy should achieve practical results for the greater well-being of society. He attempted to establish an ethical system based on human reason rather than theological doctrine. Socrates pointed out that human choice was motivated by the desire for happiness.

What is the name of Socrates method?

The Socratic method (also known as method of Elenchus, elenctic method, or Socratic debate) is a form of cooperative argumentative dialogue between individuals, based on asking and answering questions to stimulate critical thinking and to draw out ideas and underlying presuppositions.

Who is Socrates according to Islam?

Gener ally known as “the second teacher” (that is, second after Aristotle), he is properly considered the founder of political philosophy within the Islamic tradition. He was born in the village of Farab in Turkestan in 257/870; lived in Damascus, Baghdad, Aleppo, and Cairo and died in Aleppo in 339/950.

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Does Socrates believe in God?

Socrates also believes in deity, but his conception is completely different from the typical Athenians. While to the Athenians gods are human-like and confused, Socrates believes god to be perfectly good and perfectly wise. His god is rationally moral. His god also has a purpose.

Why is justice a virtue Socrates?

It exists both in the individual and the society. But it exists on a larger scale and in more visible form in the society. Individually “justice is a ‘human virtue’ that makes a man self consistent and good: Socially, justice is a social consciousness that makes a society internally harmonious and good.”

How is justice defined in The Republic?

Justice is a principle of specialization: a principle that requires that each person fulfill the societal role to which nature fitted him and not interfere in any other business. At the end of Book IV, Plato tries to show that individual justice mirrors political justice.

How does Socrates refute Polemarchus definition of justice?

Thus Socrates argues that we cannot achieve justice by doing evil to men who are already evil, and unjust. And Polemarchus concurs with this conclusion.

How does Socrates respond to Cephalus definition of justice?

In Book One of Plato’s The Republic, Socrates challenges Cephalus’ belief that justice is simply being honest and paying back the dues that one owes to the gods and to his fellow men. By providing examples of where it would be unjust to repay one’s debts, Socrates refutes Cephalus’ definition of justice.

What is Polemarchus definition of justice in Book 1 of the republic?

After the discussion of justice as a craft, Polemarchus reiterates his faith in the definition attributed to Simonides: “justice is to benefit one’s friends and harm one’s enemies” (334b).

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What does Polemarchus threaten Socrates with in the opening scene of the republic?

The action begins with Socrates and his brother Glaucon returning home from a religious festival when they are forcibly stopped by his friend Polemarchus, who playfully (?) threatens violence if Socrates won’t stop by his house for a visit. (You have probably known people like that.)