What terms in Spinoza’s Ethics have antiquated or obscure definitions?

What does Spinoza say about Ethics?

Spinoza was a moral anti-realist, in that he denied that anything is good or bad independently of human desires and beliefs.

How does Spinoza define and explain substance?

According to Spinoza, everything that exists is either a substance or a mode (E1a1). A substance is something that needs nothing else in order to exist or be conceived. Substances are independent entities both conceptually and ontologically (E1d3).

What were Spinoza’s beliefs?

Spinoza believed in a “Philosophy of tolerance and benevolence” and actually lived the life which he preached. He was criticized and ridiculed during his life and afterwards for his alleged atheism. However, even those who were against him “had to admit he lived a saintly life”.

What according to Spinoza is the best sort of knowledge?

For Spinoza, to have an adequate knowledge of epistemology, or adequate knowledge of the ways knowledge knows and is known, is to have an adequate epistemology of epistemology itself.

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What does Spinoza mean by affect?

L’affect (Spinoza’s affectus) is an ability to affect and be affected. It is a prepersonal intensity corresponding to the passage from one experiential state of the body to another and implying an augmentation or diminution in that body’s capacity to act.

What are the two fundamental affects which according to Spinoza are expressive of the power of acting?

Spinoza will engender all the passions, in their details, on the basis of these two fundamental affects: joy as an increase in the power of acting, sadness as a diminution or destruction of the power of acting.

What is Spinoza’s definition of God?

Spinozism (also spelled Spinozaism) is the monist philosophical system of Baruch Spinoza that defines “God” as a singular self-subsistent substance, with both matter and thought being attributes of such.

What is different about Descartes and Spinoza’s concepts of substance?

As we’ve seen, for Descartes each substance has one—and only one—attribute. Spinoza’s argument for substance monism, on the other hand, claims that there is a substance that possesses all the attributes.

What are the three kinds of knowledge according to Spinoza?

In his Ethics, Baruch Spinoza identifies three kinds of knowledge, which are defined by the methods by which they are obtained. The first is knowledge from imagination, the second is knowledge from reason, and the third is knowledge from intuition.

What are the different levels of knowledge according to Spinoza?

Spinoza claims in the Ethics to have shown that there are altogether three ways of knowing or forming ideas of things, that is, three kinds of knowledge, knowledge by imagination (first kind), by reason (second kind), and by intuition (third kind) (cf. 2P40Sch2).

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What does Spinoza mean when he says we should see everything sub specie aeternitatis?

Sub specie aeternitatis (Latin for “under the aspect of eternity”) is, from Baruch Spinoza onwards, a honorific expression describing what is universally and eternally true, without any reference to or dependence upon the temporal portions of reality.

What does sub specie mean?

a : a category in biological classification that ranks immediately below a species and designates a population of a particular geographic region genetically distinguishable from other such populations of the same species and capable of interbreeding successfully with them where its range overlaps theirs.

What does sub specie temporis mean?

under the aspect of time

sub specie temporis adverb phrase
L19 Latin (literally ‘under the aspect of time‘).